1. Understanding

Etymologically, the word poem comes from the Greek poises means the creation of meaning. In English, this poem is a synonym for poetry is a close-to-poet and poem. About the poet said, Counter (in Tarigan, 1986:4) explains that the word comes from the Greek poet who means to make or create. In the Greek language itself, the word poet means the person who created through his imagination, the man who is almost like a god or a very fond of the gods. He is a shrewd man, a holy man, who is also a philosopher, statesman, teacher, someone who can guess the truth is hidden.

Shannon Ahmad (in Pradopo, 1993:6) collect the definition of poetry which is generally expressed by the English romantic poets as follows.

(1) Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem suggests is the most beautiful words in the most beautiful arrangement. The poet chose words that are precise and best prepared, for example, a balanced, symmetrical, between one element with another element very closely berhubungannya, and so forth.

(2) Carlyle says that poetry is the thinking that is musical. The poet was thinking of creating a poem that sounds like the melodious music in his poetry, words arranged it so that stand out are a series of melodious sound like the music, that is, using the orchestra sound.

(3), Wordsworth had an idea that poetry is an imaginative statement of feelings, IE feelings or Dianemarie directional. As Auden pointed out that poetry was more a statement of mixed feelings.

(4) Danton believes that the poem is actually a human thinking in concrete terms in the language of artistic and emotional and rhythmic. For example, the metaphor, with its images, and arranged artistically (neg harmony, symmetry, precise choice of words, etc.), and its language with feeling, as well as rhythmic as the music (turn the sound of his words Bertram regular succession ).

(5) Shelley argued that poetry is recording the seconds of the most beautiful in life. For example, events that are very impressive and generate a strong emotion such as happiness, excitement is mounting, romance, and even grief for the death of a very beloved. Everything is the seconds of the most beautiful to be recorded.

From the above definitions is as if there are differences of thought, but still there is a red thread. Shannon Ahmad (in Prado, 1993:7) concluded that there is the sense of poetry in the lines of the poem is really great. Elements that form of emotion, imaginary, thoughts, ideas, tone, rhythm, sensory impressions, the composition of words, word figuratively, density, and mixed feelings.

2. Elements of Poetry

Here are some opinions about the elements of poetry.

(1) Richards (in Tarigan, 1986) says that the elements of poetry consisting of (a) the nature of poetry that melioration themes (sense), feeling (feeling), mandate (Intention), tone (tone), and (2) the method of poetry include diction, imagery, real words, figure of speech, rhythm and rhyme.

(2) Walloon (1987) who said that in poetry there is a physical structure or structures referred to as the inner structure of language and poetry in the form of inner expression of the author.

(3) Altenberg and Lewis (in Badrun, 1989:6), although it does not state clearly on the elements of poetry, but the outline of their book can be seen there (1) the nature of poetry, (2) language poetry: diction, imajeri, figurative language, rhetorical, (3) forms: sound values, verification, shape, and meaning, (4) Contents: narrative, emotions, and themes.

(4) Dick Hartford (in Walkout, 1987:27) mention an important element in poetry, namely thematic or semantic elements of poetry and syntactical elements of poetry. Thematic elements of poetry is more pointed toward the inner structure of poetry, syntax elements pointing to the physical structure of the poem.

(5) Meyer mentions the elements of poetry include (1) diction, (2) imagery, (3) figurative language, (4) symbol, (5) noise, (6) rhythm, (7) forms (Bad run, 1989:6) .

Of the few opinions on the above, it can be concluded that the elements of poetry include (1) theme, (2) tone, (3) taste, (4) mandate, (5) diction, (6) images, (7) figurative language, (8) concrete words, (9) rhythm and rhyme. The elements of this poem, in the opinion Walkout Richards and can be separated into two structures, namely the inner structure of the poem (the theme, tone, taste, and the mandate) and the physical structure of poetry (diction, imagery, figurative language, concrete words, rhythm and rhyme ). Djojosuroto (2004:35) describes as follows.

Figure 1. Poetry as a structure

Based on the opinion of Richards, Siswanto and Roekhan (1991:55-65) describes the elements of poetry as follows.

2.1 Physical Structure of Poetry

The physical structure of the poem is described as follows.

(1) appearance of a poem (typography), a form of poetry, such as pages that are not filled with the words, the edge of the right-left, setting its own line, until the lines of poetry that does not always begin with a capital letter and ends with a dot. Those things will determine the meaning of the poem.

(2) Diction, namely the selection of words by the poet in his poetry. Because poetry is a form of literature that few words can reveal a lot of things, then his words should be chosen as carefully as possible. The selection of words in the poem is closely related to the meaning, harmony sounds, and word order. Geoffrey (in Walkout, 19987:68-69) explained that the language of poetry has 9 (nine) aspect of deviation, ie deviation of the lexical, semantic deviation, deviation phonological, syntactical aberrations, the use of dialect, the use of register (specified by a variety of language groups and certain professions ), deviation of historical (the use of ancient words), and deviations graphologist (use of capital to the point)

(3) The image, namely the composition of a word or words that can express the sensory experience, like sight, hearing, and feeling. Images can be divided into three, namely the sound image (audit if), visual images (visual), and images of felt or touch (tactile images). Images can lead to the reader as if he will see, Ermengarde, and felt like what was experienced by the poet.

(4) concrete words, ie words that can be captured with a possible appearance of sensory images. These words are associated with metaphor or symbol. E concrete word "snow: symbolizing the ice of love, the emptiness of life, etc.., Whereas concrete words" swamp "could symbolize the dirty place, a place to live, earth, life, etc..

(5) figurative language, namely Berkie language that can bring / increase the effects and cause certain connotations (Soedjito, 1986:128). Figurative language poems into prismatic cause, meaning that emit a lot of rich meaning or significance (Walkout, 1987:83). Figurative language is also called figure of speech. Adapaun kind of figure of speech-amcam include metaphor, simile, personification, Litotes, irony, sinekdoke, euphemisms, repetition, anaphora, redundancy, antithesis, alusio, climax, anticlimax, satire, pars pro toto, totem pro parte, to the paradox.

(6) diversification, that is concerning rhyme, rhythm, and metrum. Rima is rhyme in poetry, both in the beginning, middle and end of lines of poetry. Rima include (1) onomatope (imitation of sounds, eg / ng / which gives a magical effect on poetry Sutadji CB), (2) forms of internal patterns of sound (alliteration, assonance, the final equation, equation of initial, intermittent rhyme, rhymes beaked, rhymes full, the repetition sounds [said], etc. [Waluyo, 187:92]), and (3) repetition of words / phrases. Ritma a low height, short length, lack of sound hardware. Ritma very prominent in poetry readings.

2.2 Inner Structure of Poetry

The inner structure of the poem will be explained as follows.

(1) The theme / meaning (sense); medium of poetry is language. Level is the relationship of sign language with meaning, the poem should be meaningful, both the meaning of each word, line, stanza, and the overall meaning.

(2) Pain (feeling), the poet attitude toward the subject matter contained in the poem. Disclosure of the theme and taste is closely related to social background and psychology of poets, such as educational background, religion, sex, social class, position in society, age, sociological and psychological experience, and knowledge. Depth of disclosure and accuracy in addressing the theme of an issue does not depend on the ability penyairmemilih words, rhymes, styles, and forms of poetry alone, but more dependent on the insight, knowledge, experience and personality are shaped by sociological and psychological background.

(3) Tone (Tone), the poet attitude toward his readers. Nada is also related to the theme and flavor. Poets can submit a theme with a patronizing tone, dictate, in cooperation with the reader to solve the problem, simply leave the matter to the reader, with a tone of arrogant, stupid and low regard readers, etc..

(4) Mandate / objectives / purpose (itention); consciously or not, there is a goal that encourages poets to create poetry. That goal can be sought before the poet creates a poem, and can be found in his poetry.