In this chapter, the researcher attempts to review the related literature about language aptitude and covers: (1) the definition of language aptitude,(2) the value of language aptitude test, (3) the from of language aptitude test,(4) the uses of language aptitude test results,(5)the definition of achievement,(6)some factors affecting the study achievement
2.1 The Definition of Language Aptitude.
    Foreign language aptitude, defined By Carroll (1973; 5) is the” rate at which person at the secondary school, university and adult level learn to criterion.” There are a number of definition, but most of them describe aptitude as a” talent” for language or the speed at which the learner can learn the task in question. The foreign language aptitude was the subject of extensive research conduction since the so ‘s. several aptitude tests have arisen from this research, which are in use today. They have been designed to measure the ability of students to learn a foreign language in classroom settings as well as for selection, placement, and diagnostic purpose.
    However, there are a number of criticisms regarding language aptitude. One of them is that the MLAT and LAB test don’t measure innate aptitude for language proficiency. Ellis (1985)argues that aptitude test do not assess the oral ability that is part of language proficiency and that the language aptitude is not only the ability to learn sounds and syntax, but also the ability to use all various systems of the a language molder to communication meaning. It is also argued that language aptitude test my product is successful predication because there is an imminent agreement of test contained in a test with those present in formal classroom study, and as such it does not measure some in hate linguistic ability.
2.2    The Value Of Language Aptitude Test
The value of language aptitude test research data, Gayle L (1990;2) show that individually administered aptitude test have the following qualities:
They are excellent predictors of future scholastic achievement.
They provide ways of comparing children in the same situation.
They provide a profile of strengths and weaknesses.
They assess differences among individual is.
They have uncovered hidden talents in some children, the us improving their education opportunities.
They are valuable tools for working with handicapped children. In addition, group achievement battery of test can be give quickly and inexpensively to large number of children. Who obtain extreme scores can be easily identified to receive further specialized attention. Aptitude test is valuable in making program and curricula decisions. They can also be used for grouping students as long as grouping is flexible.
2.3    The Form Of Language Aptitude Test
The form of language aptitude test Carroll (1973) who created the modern language aptitude test (MLAT) with his co-author Sapon. Defined language aptitude as simply an’ ability, or “knack” for learning foreign language. Virtually every one has this ability, but some people appear to learn at a faster rate than other. According to Carroll, the purpose of the MLAT was to predict” how well, relative to other individuals, an individual can learn a foreign language in a give amount of time an under give conditions.” In other words, language aptitude is an ability that language determines how quickly and easily and individual will learn a language in a language course or language traming program. As is the case for other kinds of aptitude, such as verbal ability and musical abilities, language aptitude is believed to be relatively stable throughout an. Individual’s life time second language testing foundation provides a variety of language aptitude test for deferent age and language group. This is a brief overview of the aptitude test information. For more detailed information about each test and ordering procedure.
2.3.1    modern language aptitude test (MLAT)
 the modern language aptitude test is:1) appropriate for adults, college/ university student,2) available in a paper based version (MLAT) as well as a computer-based version (CB-MLAT),3) common use for selection and placement of language learners by government agencies, missionary group, and companies, diagnosis of foreign language learning disability (FLLD) for college/ university students and adults, placement of language learners in the most appropriate instructional setting I colleges/ universities or other formal classroom settings.
2.3.2    Pimsleur language aptitude battery (PLAB)
this test is appropriate for students whose first language is English or who are proficient in English and common used for diagnosis of foreign language learning disability in middle school/high school students, providing guidance to middle school/high school student beginning or struggling with foreign language study, advising students who do well on the test to pursue the study of a second and/ or third language building a history of low performance on language aptitude measure to establish, placement of language learners in the most appropriate instructional setting, understanding student cognitive strengths and weaknesses pertaining to language learning.
2.3.3    Modern language aptitude test-elementary (MLAT-E)
 the MLAT_E  test is appropriate for student whose first language is English and common uses for providing guidance to elementary school students beginning or struggling with foreign language study, advising students who do well on the test purse the study of a second and/or third language, building a history of low performance on language aptitude measure to establish the presence of a foreign language learning disability, placement of language learners in the most appropriate instructional setting, understanding of student cognitive strengths and weaknesses pertaining to language learning.
2.3.4    Modern language aptitude test-elementary:
Spanish version (MLAT-ES) the test are:1) appropriate for students whose first language is Spanish,2) Spanish language adaptation of the MLAT-E,3) it can be used with Spanish-speaking children in the united states or with native Spanish-speaking children in other countries, and 4) it common used for determining if a Spanish-speaking child in the united state having difficulty learning English as a second language has a language learning disability, providing guidance to teachers and parents of Spanish-speaking elementary school students beginning or struggling with foreign language study, advising student who do well on the test to pursue the study of a second and/or third language, building a history of language learning, placement of second language learners in the most appropriate, learning teaching methodologies
2.4    The Use Of Language Aptitude Test Result’s In General
The use of language aptitude test result’s in general, aptitude test results have three major uses based on gayle l (1990:12) are:
Instructional teachers can use aptitude test ho results to adapt their curriculum to match the level of their students or to design assignment for student who differ widely, aptitude test scores can also help teaches form realistic expectations, of students. Knowing something about the aptitude level of student in a give class can help a teacher identify which student are not learning as much as could be predicted on the basic of aptitude scores. For instance, if a whole class were performing less well than would be predicted from aptitude test results, the curriculum objective, teaching methods, or student characteristics might be investigated.     
Aptitude test scores can identify the general aptitude level of a high school for example. The can be helpful in determining how much emphasis should be give to college preparatory programs. Aptitude test can be used to help identify students to be accelerated or give extra attention, for grouping, and in predicting job training performance.
. guidance
Guidance counselors use aptitude tests to help parents develop realistic expectations for their child’s school performance and to help students understand their own strengths and weaknesses.
2.5 Achievement
    Achievement is successful finishing or gaining of something (Longman, 1998: 7). Achievement is usually designed by test score or marks assigned by the teacher to the pupil, it means that a result which is achieved by the students, after they studied the material lesson. However, in learning activity it means the mastering of knowledge or skills that is developed by a lesson and shown by a score or mark.
    Meanwhile, achievement test is designed to measure an individual’s best or maximum performance (Wiersma, 1991: 283). Achievement tests measure the current status of individuals with respect to proficiency in given areas of knowledge or skill (Cay, 1987: 144).
    In this study, achievement will be specified to level of proficiency in English subject. In this case, achievement in English subject of the second year student at MAN 2 Malang. English achievement refers to students’ achievement in English subject.
    English achievement is a progression step in the instruction objects of English. This achievement can be measured from their language skill ability, i e. listening, spiking, reading, and writing.
2.5.1 Kinds of learning Achievement
    From the benefit, hence, the result of learning evaluation distinguishable becomes four. To be obtainable at school there are as follow:
Formative evaluation: the evaluation which is used to revise the learning and teaching process.
Summative evaluation: the evaluation which used to the students’ class ascent or to the student’ passing.
Evaluations majors: the evaluation which used to specify the students’ correct class.
Diagnostics evaluation: the evaluation to help to solve the certain students’ problem of study.
Final evaluation (the Final Learning Evaluation): the evaluation which used to determine the students’ passing school.
2.5.2 Factors affecting the achievement in study
    As the researcher knows, the factor affecting the success of learning is not just learning strategies. Learning strategies is just as part of another factor. The researcher also tries to determine factors which affect the success in study, namely internal and external factors. Internal Factor
Internal factor means factors, which are coming from the student selves, they consist of:
Intelligence represents one aspect determining success in the study. If students have normal intelligence or higher one, it may potentially obtain good achievement in study. However, reality there is also students who have high intelligence but failed in study, this case may be caused by other factor influencing of learning intensity and so on
Aptitude means a potential or an ability, which can be developed easily to get good achievement in an activity through learning. For example, the aptitude for language it means a person who has good aptitude will get good achievement more easily than one who has no aptitude. Aptitude test is designed to assess students’ abilities. It means to predict the ability of students to learn or perform particular or types of the tasks rather than to measure how much the students have already learned.
Interest and Attention
 Interest and attention have close relation which learning. One who has interested in special lesson usually tends to give more attention to the lesson than to others.
Motivation and Attitude.
Motivation is commonly thought of as an inner driver, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves one to a particular action. More specifically, human beings universally have needs or drives that are innate, yet their intensity is environmentally conditioned. Motivation divided into two, are instrumental motivation and Integrative motivation. Instrumental motivation is the reflection of an external need. It means that the students need tools to motivate them while integrative motivation is an internally generated want; it means the students want to study because of their need. Attitude is an internal state that influences (moderates) the choice of personal action made by the individual (Gagne, 1977:44).
Learner beliefs.
Language learners are not always conscious of their individual learning styles, but virtually all learners, particularly older learners, have strong beliefs and opinion about how their interaction should be delivered. These beliefs are usually based on previous learning experiences and the assumption (right or wrong). In other word, what students think about language learning can effect how they go about doing it. Therefore, knowledge of students’ beliefs about language learning is important step toward understanding the learning.    External Factor
External factor means factors coming from out side of the students, such as:
Family plays an important external factor affecting students in learning. When student’s family and its member give stimulus to their study, for example, by giving motivation or guidance to the students learning at home, this condition will help students obtain better achievement in study.
School Environment
The condition environment where the students study also effects on their acquisition. For instance, fresh air will affect their soul. Therefore, the students who study in acceptable environment may get better achievement that the students who study in bad environment such as dirty or hot air.
Social Environment
Social environment can affect the students’ condition, such as negative influence from their close friends, society condition and other negative situation around them. Therefore, teacher and parent should be in cooperation to pay more attention to their students and their children when they are out of school and home environment.